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Vitamins and Minerals

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Vitamins and minerals are measured in milligrams (mg), micrograms (mcg) and international units (IU).

Vitamins are placed in two categories, water-soluble and fat-soluble based on whether or not the vitamins can dissolve in water. Water-soluble vitamins include the B complex of vitamins and vitamin C. You don't store water-soluble vitamins in your body very well so they need to be replaced constantly through your diet.

Some vitamins and minerals need to be taken together for maximum effect.

Don't overdose: with few exceptions, like some vitamins from B complex, hypervitaminosis usually occurs more with fat-soluble vitamins, which are stored in the liver and fatty tissues of the body. These vitamins build up and remain for a longer time in the body than water soluble vitamins.

High doses of mineral supplements can also lead to side effects and toxicity. Mineral-supplement poisoning does occur occasionally, most often due to excessive intake of iron-containing supplements.

A table of essential vitamins

Name Daily need Main occurrence Effectiveness Lack Overdosing Increased need Characteristics
Vitamin A (Retinol) approx. 1 - 5mg; liver and giblets (3 ounces = 1490-9126 micrograms) Cod-liver oil, liver, kidney, milk products, butter, yolk, as provitamine A in carrots Normal growth, function and protection of skin, eyes and mucous membrane, bone and red blood cell formation Growth stop, night blindness Impaired visions, headache, nausea, vomitus, tiredness, skin change Smoker, vegetarian, in case of high alcohol consumption, intake of cathartic, birth control pill, antibiotics Fat-soluble, light and oxygen-sensitively
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) approx. 2mg (At carbohydrates-packed nutrition some more) Wheat germs, wholemeal cereals, peas, heart, pork, barm, oatmeal, liver, brown rice Important for the nerve system, liver damage, inefficiency, pregnancy, mosquito protection (high-dosed), production of energy, affects the carbohydrates metabolism, important for the thyroid function Heavy muscle- and nerve disturbances, tiredness, dyspepsias, dropsy, cardiac insufficiency, cramps, paralyses, prickle in arms and legs none Diet, youth, pregnant and nursing women, alcohol consumption, intake of birth control pill, antibiotics, chemotherapye Water-soluble, Thiamin gets destroyed by heat and long storage, but not by freezing. Daily intake of vitamin B1 is important, because the body can´t store B1, which comes over the food
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) approx. 2 mg Milk products, Meat, wholemeal cereal, cheese, eggs, liver, sea-fish, green leafy vegetables, whey powder Important for body growth, untilization of fats, protein and carbohydrates, well for skin, eyes and nails, important energy bringer, oxygen transport (rarely) skin inflammation, brittle nails, anaemia, callus attrition not known Pregnancy, intake of birth control pill and antibiotics, chemotherapy, fever, smoker, old people Water-soluble, food with Vitamin B2 should be stored cool and dark.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotine acid) 13 - 16 mg; one cup chopped chicken breast - 19.197 mg;three ounces tuna - 11.295 mg Barm, peanuts, peas, liver, poultry, fish, lean meat Building and degradation of fat, protein and carbohydrates, good sleep Skin and mucosa inflammation, headache, trembling, vertigo, sleep disturbance, depressions, feeling of prickle and deafness in the limbs (with over 100mg a day) pruritus, nausea, allergies Labor, fever, nursing women Water-soluble, effect is outweighed by sugar and alcohol
Vitamin B5 (Pantothen acid) approx. 10 mg Liver, vegetable, wheat germs, asparagus, crabs, meat, sunflower cores, Pumpernickel Against turning grey, hair loss, hair and mucous membrane illnesses, necessarily for the dismantling of fat, proteins and carbohydrates Nerve malfunctions, bad healing of wounds, early turning grey, weakened immune system Over urine excreted Old people, pregnant and nursing women, burden, drinking much coffee an tea Water-soluble, heat-sensitive
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxin) approx. 2 mg Bananas, nuts, wholemeal products, yeast, liver, potatos, green beans, cauliflower, carrots Travel sickness, neuralgia, liver damage, premenstrual syndrome, digestion of protein, most important hormone in pregnancy together with folic acid, detoxication (rather rarely) intestine problems, bad skin, tiredness, rough corners of the mouth With intake of this for a longer time in form of tablets it can deposit in the body tissue and lead to nerve damages. Period of growth, intake of birth control pill, cortisone, during physical and mental load, before the menstruation Water-soluble, neither heat nor light-resisting
Vitamin B7 (Biotin, Vitamin H) approx. 0,5 mg Liver, cauliflower, champignons, wholemeal products, eggs, avocado, spinach, milk Skin deseases, loss in growth of hairs, liver damage, assists metabolism, carbohydrate and fatty acid activity, together with vitamin K it is needed for building up the clotting factors States of exhausting, skin inflammations, muscular pains, hair loss, nausea not known Intake of birth control pill, antibiotics and cathartics Water-soluble
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid, Vitamin M) approx. 160 µg Liver, wheat germs, cucurbit, champignons, spinach, avocado Liver damage, cell division, healing and growth of muscles and cells, protein metabolism Anaemia, digesting disturbances, disturbances of hair -, bone and cartilage growth Allgergies, sleep disturbances and bad moods (with more than 15 mg a day) Pregnant and nursing women, smoker, youth Water-soluble, do not tolerate with heat, light or oxygen
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) approx. 5 µg Liver, milk, yolk, fish, meat, oysters, quark, barm Building substance of cytoblast and erythrocyte, nerve pains, skin and mucosa inflammation, liver damage Aenaemia, nerve disturbances, nervous disturbances, changes in the lung and the spinal marrows Not possible, because it will be excreted by the body Diabetics, pregnant and nursing women, vegetarian, vegan, intake of birth controll pill, antibiotics and anti cramp means, chemotherapy Not water-soluble, heatproof
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) approx. 75 mg - 200 mg; safe up to 2000mg ; one cup orange juice - 124 mg Dogroses, sea buckthorn, citric fruits, black currants, potatoes, paprika, tomatoes, collard, spinach, vegetables, radish Inflammation and bleeding-restraining, assists the body\'s defences, protects cells against chemical destruction, activates enzymes, structure of connective tissue, bones and dental enamel, faster healing of wounds, stabilisation of psyche Gum-bleed, tiredness, joint pain and headache, bad healing of wounds, lack of appetite, scurvy, inefficiency In the case of overdosing in form of powder and pills nausea, vomiting and urine stones can be the result. Smoker, pregnant and nursing women, older people, diets, alcohol consumption, intake of birth control pill, antibiotics, cortisone, analgesics and barbiturates Water-soluble, oxygen and dryness-sensitively, not for a long time store
Vitamin D (Calciferol) approx. 5 µg Cod-liver oil, liver, milk, yolk, butter, sea fish, herring, champignons, avocado Regulation of calcium- und phosphat household, structure of bone, assits admission of calcium Bone curvature and softening, increased infection sensitivity, amyasthenia (only with man-made Vitamin D) Calcium deposists in bones, heart muscle, blood vessels, stomach, headache, vomiting, swindle, gastro-intestinal diseases Babies, older humans, intake of birth control pill, cathartic, antibiotics, barbiturate Fat-soluble, light sensitively, heatproof
Vitamin E (Tocopherole) 10 - 30 mg (with fat-enrich nutrition more); sunflower seeds (1 ounce = 7.4 milligrams), almonds (1 ounce = 7.3 milligrams), Sunflowers -, corn -, Soja and wheat germ oil, nuts, flaxseed, salsify, peperoni, collard, avocado Stabilization of the immune system, anti-inflammatory, cell replacement, protection from radicals, modulates cholesterol level and hormone household, important for blood vessels, muscles and reproduction organs (rarely) amblyopia, tiredness, amyotrohia, dislike, reproduction problems (particularly by synthetically manufactured caps) bad healing of wounds, deficiency symptoms, swindle, nausea intake of cathartics and blood-fat-lowering medicines, high consumption of alcohol Fat-soluble, it is destroyed by open storage, deep-freezing or cooking with much fat
Vitamin K (Phyllochinone) approx. 2 mg Eggs, liver, green collard, green vegetable, bulbs, oatmeal, kiwi, tomatoes, cress Necessary for formation of the blood clotting factors High doses of vitamin A and E work against vitamin K. With intake for a longer time, it can become toxid, bleedings, hot flashes, renal diseases Babies, high consumption of alcohol, intake of birth control pill, antibiotics and carthartics Fat-soluble, food with Vitamin K schould be stored darkly

Try the vitamin wheel

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Item Food source Amount For
Selenium meat, fish (tuna) or nuts (Brazil) 0.075 mg a day for men

0.06 mg a day for women

Max 0.35mg
immune system, thyroid, antioxidant,


Food for Teeth and Bones

Vitamin D, Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin A, and beta carotene. In addition to calcium and fluoride, minerals needed for the formation of tooth enamel include phosphorus (richly supplied in meat, fish, and eggs) and magnesium (found in whole grains, spinach, and bananas). Vitamin A also helps build strong bones and teeth. Good sources of beta carotene, which the body turns into vitamin A, include orange-colored fruits and vegetables and the dark green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin and mineral references

Vitamin and Mineral supplements

Brewers Yeast

The vitamins and minerals in brewer’s yeast are:

   Nucleic acids
   Folic acid

Some nutritional versions have the bitterness removed and that means no chromium

It might improve:

   Nervous conditions
   High cholesterol
   Carpal tunnel syndrome
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